These waste types are converted to solid, gas and liquid fuels. Thus, biomass fuel is obtained. It is also possible to generate heat and electricity. In other words, all substances of vegetable and animal origin, the main components of which are carbohydrate compounds, are called Biomass Energy Source. Energy produced from these sources is defined as Biomass Energy. It is possible to deal with biomass energy in two groups: classical and modern. First, it is firewood obtained from traditional forests and plant and animal waste used as fuel.

The second, namely modern biomass energy, can be counted as energy forestry and forest-tree industry wastes, vegetable wastes in the agricultural sector, urban wastes, agricultural industrial wastes.

Biomass resources (feedstocks)

The growth rate of some trees (such as poplar or eucalyptus) is higher than that of natural forests. There are plants that grow in areas with high rates of sunlight and use water very efficiently. These are plants that are capable of photosynthesis even at low carbon dioxide concentrations and are more resistant to seasonal drought than other plants. These plants are carbon plants. Plants such as sweet sorghum, sugar cane, corn are called C4 (carbon) plants. Vegetable biomass is the result of green plants storing solar energy directly into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

Wood (energy forests, various trees), oilseed plants (rapeseed, sunflower, soybean etc.), carbon-hydrate plants (potato, wheat, corn, beet, artichoke, etc.), fiber plants (flax, kenaf, hemp, sorghum, miskantus, etc.), protein plants (peas, beans, wheat etc.), vegetable residues (branch, stalk, straw, root, shell, etc.), animal wastes and urban and industrial wastes are evaluated within the scope of biomass energy technologies. And these products are used as an alternative to existing fuels. Thus, these products are converted into many solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.

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